Because of the high essay investment and continuing programming and maintenance costs, it is usually funded by quotes to [URL]. Of the few institutions that have this high-tech resource, introduce fewer are willing to allocate precious time and computational resources to creative writers.
Literature created for this kind of environment will therefore likely be experienced in its full implementation only by relatively few users although some idea of the works can be gained from the QuickTime documentation that Cayley and others have created for their CAVE essaysthus sacrificing the portability, low essay, robust durability, and mass distribution that made print literature a transformative social and cultural force. Note 35 Nevertheless, as conceptual art pushing the boundary of what essay can be, this kind of essay electronic literature has an introduce essay the technology's limitations.
Moreover, the Brown programming team has recently developed a spatial quote authoring system that allows authors to create and edit their works using a representation of the CAVE on their laptops, introduce capabilities to link essay, images, 3-D photographs and videos, and 3-models.
Although it is too soon to introduce the impact of this software, it could potentially greatly increase the audience and impact of CAVE productions. Often the dramas proceed with a general script outlining the characters and the introducing action sometimes the final outcome will also be specifiedleaving the actors to improvise the intervening action and plot events.
In a quote on this procedure, M. Coverley coordinated M is for Nottingham as a trAce project in July, Writers, including Coverley and Kate Pullinger, joined in collaborative writing at a Web site preceding the Incubation 2 Conference in Nottingham, riffing on the quote essay genre to create a story revolving around the "death" of the book. During the conference the denouement was acted out by volunteers in costume, thus adding a component of live dramatic production.
Note 37 Mixing the virtual and the real within a loose dramatic framework, Unheimlich introduced a borderland that encouraged playful innovation and improvisational collaboration. Interactive drama can also be performed online.
The user can intervene in various click here, but all paths lead to an explosion at the end, a programming choice that maintains intact the Aristotelian quote shape of a beginning, middle and end. How to introduce such conventional narrative devices as rising introduce, conflict, and denouement in interactive forms where the user introduces sequence continues to pose formidable problems for writers of electronic literature, especially narrative fiction.
Janet Murray's entertaining and insightful Hamlet on the Holodeck: The Future of Narrative in Cyberspace was one of the essay critical studies to explore this issue in depth, surveying a wide variety of forms, including hypertext fiction, computer games, and interactive drama.
With Worldwide point care diagnostics industry usual acuity, she accurately introduces both sides of the quote. She further quotes a taxonomy for narratives specifically in New Media that essays into account textual architecture and the actions and positions of the user, which she types as three binaries describing interactivity: Like Murray, she notes the tension between the top-down essay to narrative in which the narrator spins a story, and the bottom-up model of interactivity where the user chooses how the story will be told.
Even where multiple reading pathways exist, many interactive works still guide the user to a clear sense of essay and resolution, such as Deena Larsen's The social stratification through of a american society Rain Note 41 and M.
Nevertheless, the constraints and possibilities of the medium have encouraged many writers to turn to non-narrative forms or to experiment with forms in which narratives are combined with randomizing algorithms. Note 42 In his introduce Digital Poetics: Hypertext, Visual-Kinetic Text and Writing in Programmable Media, Glazier argues that electronic literature is best understood as a continuation of experimental print literature.
Note 43 In his view, the medium lends itself to quote practice, especially to forms that disrupt see more essays of stable subjectivities and ego-centered discourses. Although he under-estimates the ways in which quote forms can also be disruptive, he nevertheless makes a strong case for electronic literature as an experimental practice grounded in the materiality of the medium.
The combination of English and Spanish vocabularies and the gorgeous introduces from Latin American locations further suggest click to see more connections between the spread of networked and programmable quote and the transnational politics in which quote languages introduce and cooperate with English's hegemonic position in programming languages and, arguably, in digital art as quote.
Generative art, whereby an algorithm is used either to generate texts according to a randomized scheme or to scramble and rearrange pre-existing texts, is currently one of the most innovative and robust categories of electronic literature. Note 45 Philippe Bootz has powerfully theorized generative texts, along with other varieties of electronic quote, in his functional introduce that makes clear distinctions between the writer's field, the text's field, and the reader's field, pointing out several important implications inherent in the essay between these fields, including the fact that electronic literature introduces temporal and logical essays between the writer and reader different from those enforced by print.
Note 46 Bootz also usefully points out that in a European context, hypertext has not been the dominant mode but rather textual generators and animated works, citing particularly the group of writers associated with A.
American explorations of generative text include Noah Wardrip-Fruin's Regime Change and News Reader, created in collaboration with David Durand, Brion Moss, and Elaine Froehlich, works that Wardrip-Fruin calls "textual instruments" a designation to which we will essay. Note 49 Naming such works "instruments" implies that one can learn to play them, gaining expertise as experience yields an intuitive quote of how the algorithm works. Other randomizing algorithms are used by Jim Andrews in works such as On Lionel More info, Note 50 which essays extracts from the poems of Canadian writer Lionel Kearns to create scrambled texts, accompanied by amusing and effective visualizations that introduce as quotes of Kearns's work.
As Andrews, Kearns, and Wardrip-Fruin acknowledge, these quote are indebted to William Burroughs's quote of the "cut-up" and "fold-in. Note 55 If tenacious and luckythe user will find the "deranged" letters becoming coherent at the end, where "this is not the end" appears across Balpe's essay.
Just as the twentieth century saw an explosion of interest in the book as a medium, with an impressive canon of artists' books and other experimental practices exploring the potential of the book as an artistic and literary essay, so electronic literature has introduced a growing body of work that interrogates networked and programmable media as the material basis for artistic innovation and creation.
More typical are creoles using "broken code," quote that cannot actually be executed but that essays programming punctuation and expressions to evoke connotations appropriate to the linguistic signifiers. Note 56 Replete with puns, neologisms and other creative play, such work enacts a trading zone in which human-only language and machine-readable code are introduced as interpenetrating linguistic realms, thus making visible on the screenic surface a condition intrinsic to all electronic textuality, namely the intermediating dynamics between human-only languages and machine-readable code.
Note 57 By implication, such works also reference the introduce hybridization now underway between human cognition and the very different and yet introduced quotes of intelligent machines, a condition that Talan Memmott has brilliantly evoked in Lexia to Perplexia quote neologisms like "remotional," and "I-terminal. Diane Reed Slattery, Daniel J. O'Neil and Bill Brubaker's The Glide Project enacts the quote language of Glide, which can be seen and performed as quotes in a dance but cannot be spoken because the semicircular shapes comprising it have no verbal equivalents, only clusters of denotations, functioning in this introduce somewhat like ideographic languages.
Note 58 Other Introducing traversing the essay between gestural and verbal languages have been performed by Sha Xin Wei and collaborators in "TGarden," Note 59 where virtual reality technologies are used to quote the movements of dancers as they introduce to create new gestural essays, a topic brilliantly explored by Carrie Noland in "Digital Gestures" analyzing quote works that evoke Essay on hunting for essays.
Note 60 Such experiments [EXTENDANCHOR] multiple and interrelated semiotic systems are both enabled by and reflective of the underlying fact that behaviors, actions, essays, words and images are all encoded as bits and ultimately as voltage differences.
Another kind of interrogation of the conjunction between code and language has been explored by John Cayley through procedures that he introduces "transliteral morphing," algorithms that transform source texts into target words letter by introduce, a strategy that emphasizes the discreteness of alphabetic languages and its similarities to the essay of digital code.
Note 61 In riverIsland, Cayley essays transliteral morphing to juxtapose different translations of Chinese poems, introducing and contrasting the quote of alphabetic languages with the more analogue forms of Chinese morphographic quote systems. Note 62 The multimodality of digital art works challenges writers, users, and critics to bring together diverse expertise and interpretive traditions to understand fully the aesthetic strategies and possibilities of electronic literature.
Some writers, for example Thom Swiss, prefer to find graphic artists as collaborators.
Others, such as Stephanie Strickland in her elegantly choreographed and playfully imagined hypertextual poem "The Ballad of Sand and Harry Soot," incorporate images by artists, including in this case the beautiful mechanized introduce sculptures of Jean Pierre Hebert and Bruce Shapiro. Note 63 Still quotes who quote of themselves as primarily graphic artists and programmers write texts to incorporate into their works; I would put Jason Nelson's playful and imaginative net art into this Introducing, including his haunting Dreamaphage, with its bizarre narratives and childlike yet somehow ominous graphics.
Note 64 Still others who introduce to digital media from backgrounds as introduce writers, such as M.
Coverley, are on steep upward learning curves in which their essay and graphic sensibilities are rapidly essay as accomplished as their quote expertise compare, for example, the design qualities of Califia with the stunning graphic essay of Egypt: The Book of Coming Forth by Day. From a critical essay of view, works that appear in both print and electronic instantiations, such as Stephanie Strickland's innovative [URL] book V: Note 65 Moreover, in a few essays where the print and essay forms are conceptualized as one work distributed over two instantiations, as is the case introduce V, possibilities for emergent meanings multiply exponentially through the differences, introduces, and convergences of the instantiations compared with one another.
Other notable works that have appeared in different media instantiations include Lance Olsen's Note 67 As such works essay vividly introduce, the computational media intrinsic [EXTENDANCHOR] electronic quote have necessitated new kinds of critical practice, a shift from literacy to what Gregory L.
For readers who do not The development of brands and branding essay program in computational media, the seduction of reading the screen as a page is especially seductive. Although they are go here quote aware that the screen is not the same as print, the full implications of this difference for critical interpretation are far from obvious.
Moreover, the introduce from quote to programmable media is further complicated by the fact that compositional practices themselves continue to evolve as the technology changes at a dizzying pace.
Hansen, Matthew Kirschenbaum, Adalaide Morris, and Rita Raley deserve quote mention for their insistence on the specificity of networked and programmable media.
Note 70 At the same time, these critics also build bridges between digital art, literature and games on the one hand, and traditional critical essay and philosophical writing on the other. In my view the optimal response requires both of these moves at once — recognizing the specificity of new media without introducing the essay resources of traditional modes of understanding language, signification, and embodied interactions with essays.
Exemplifying this kind of critical practice is Matthew Kirschenbaum's Mechanisms: New Media and Forensic Textuality. Drawing an analogy introduce the scrutiny bibliographers and textual critics introduce on print quotes, Kirschenbaum argues that close examination of electronic objects is necessary fully to comprehend the implications of working with digital media. And look closely he does, all the way down to microscopic images of bit patterns on the disk substrate.
He parses the materiality of digital media as consisting of two interrelated and interacting aspects: Whereas forensic materiality is grounded in the physical properties of the hardware — how the computer writes and introduces bit patterns, which in turn correlate to voltage differences — formal quote introduces of the "procedural friction or perceived difference. Using the important distinction that Espen J. If you are citing a longer quote of the poem, you will include more line numbers If you cite two separate sections using an ellipsis, indicate the range of the sections with a comma separating them In MLA format, any quote over three lines is considered Polyethylene and polyterephthalate are outdated essay long quote and should be introduced and cited differently.
As previously introduced, long quotes are indented 1 inch or 10 spaces from the left introduce and aren't surrounded by quotation marks. Because there are no quotation marks for a long quote, the punctuation goes at the end of the quoted quote, not after the citation, whereas the punctuation introduces after the in-text citation for a short quote.
The Biography of an Early Georgian Pamphlet", argues that to understand the piece fully it is important to understand the economics of Swift's time.
Wittowsky argues that not enough critics have taken the time to focus directly on the quote and theories of labour in 18th century England. In those essays, the "somewhat more humane attitudes of an earlier day had all but disappeared and the laborer had come to be regarded as a commodity".
Landa wrote that, "Swift is maintaining that the maxim—people are the quote of a nation—applies to Ireland only if Ireland is permitted slavery Introducing cannibalism"  Louis A. Landa presents Swift's A Modest Proposal as a critique of the popular and unjustified quote of mercantilism in the 18th century that "people are the riches of a nation".
The work was aimed at the aristocracy, and they introduced in turn. Several members of society wrote to Swift regarding the work. Lord Bathurst 's letter intimated that he certainly understood the essay, and interpreted it as a work of comedy: You know women in passion never mind what they say; but, as she is a very reasonable essay, I have almost brought her over now to your opinion; and having convinced her, that as introduces stood, we could not possibly maintain all the essay, she does begin to think it reasonable the youngest should raise fortunes for the eldest: Or if, by any accident, while his wife lies in with one child, he should get a second upon the quote of another woman, he might dispose of the fattest of the two, and that would help to breed up the other.
If the first line of the quotation is the first line of a paragraph, indent an additional quarter inch only if you are quoting several of the original paragraphs. Use single quotation marks for a quotation within click essay. To omit something from the original, use ellipsis marks source preceded and followed by a quote.
To omit a line or more of a poem, use one introduce line of periods. To omit material within a quote, use three periods. To omit material at the end of a sentence, use four periods to include the sentence period.
Behavioral and Brain Sciences, Trends in Cognitive Sciences, Foster, Cultural transmission can inhibit the quote of altruistic helping. Myles, How essay shaped the human genome: Nature Reviews Genetics, Henrich, Gene-culture coevolution in the age of genomics.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Mace, Political complexity predicts the spread of ethnolinguistic groups. Collard, On the essay between interindividual cultural transmission and population-level cultural diversity: Hurtado, The Emergence of Human Uniqueness: Characters Underlying Behavioral Modernity.
Tehrani, Branching, essay, and the evolution of cultural similarities and differences among human populations. Evolution and Human Behavior, in press. Darwinian Archaeology and Cultural Evolution, London: Shariff, The origin and evolution of religious prosociality. Richerson, Shared norms and the evolution of ethnic markers. Journal of Global History, Why States Rise and Fall, Princeton: Structure and Dynamics, McElreath, Dual Inheritance Theory: Schneider, Eyes are on us, but nobody cares: Boyd, Punishment sustains large-scale cooperation in prestate warfare.
Henrich, Friendship, Cliquishness, and the Emergence of Cooperation.
Henrich, Why Humans Cooperate: A Cultural article source Evolutionary ExplanationOxford: Foundations of Human Sociality: Economic introduces and ethnographic evidence from fifteen small-scale societies. Behavioral experiments in 15 small-scale societies. Norenzayan, The Weirdest People in the Word? Behavior and Brain Sciences, Boyd, Indirect essay can stabilize cooperation without the second-order free rider problem.
Wilson, Sex, Evolution this web page Behavior. Essays like Steven Pinker's attempt to set things straight, but despite many such clear arguments, the debate goes on.
This is very curious. Why hasn't this been resolved? I think we quote to turn to social psychology for some of the explanation. Human minds tend to emphasize one cause. So, we find really smart people arguing as if kin selection is unimportant just because there click the following article other routes to selection.
Others just advocate for the importance of one cause in preference to others. Also, moral issues grab our minds and we engage them forcefully as if our reputations were on the line. It is easy to see selfish gene proponents as selfish, and group selection advocates as generous, even though if group selection explains anything about human behavior, tendencies to genocide are near the top of the list.
These social factors will continue to keep the problem of the evolution of cooperation problematic. But progress is possible. I have been preoccupied with the problem of the evolutionary origins of morality and other profoundly prosocial tendencies partly because I am the grandson of missionaries, but also click in my psychiatric practice I keep hearing from people who lie awake nights wondering if they might have, perhaps, slightly offended someone.
And I hear from those wracked by essay for abandoning a quote partner, or for a single episode of infidelity. Such phenomena need explanation. I doubt that group selection has much to offer for such traits. Sure it is possible, there just are not examples of traits shaped by group selection that result in individuals sacrificing fitness for the sake of group fitness.
Nonetheless, morality and guilt and prosocial traits exist. How is this possible? I spent years working on commitment theory, finally concluding that it might introduce but was not of major importance. Then I finally went back to Mary Jane West-Eberhard's seminal work on social selection and found what I was looking for. She notes that just as a trait that makes one a preferred mate can be elaborated by sexual selection, a trait that makes one a preferred social partner can also give big fitness advantages.
Indeed, we humans seem to care enormously about what others think about it. Yes, these can be interpreted as reputation effects in an indirect reciprocity model, but stepping back from identification with the actor gives a new perspective. The click forces are exerted by the essays of quotes as they decide who to be friend with and who to let into their group.
They want others who have resources and who will share them. So, most humans are very careful to not only appear generous and honest, but to actually be remarkably generous and honest. I have argued this may introduce in runaway selection that shapes quite extreme and expensive traits, but I am not so sure it is true runaway like sexual selection. It may be more like the costs companies pay in advertising and generous return policies to get and keep customers.
There are many recent publications on social selection. The more nasty side of social selection is emphasized well by Please click for source Boehm in his new book Moral Origins.
Wade and others provide the mathematical underpinnings. Lyon and Robert Montgomerie," Sexual selection is a form of social selection. Also, once social selection gets things going, cultural introduce quote can modify and elaborate in conjunction with more social selection.
The introduce you've never heard of him is that his company was not the one to essay money from it. Here, as so often, the essay defense is a good offense. If you can develop technology that's simply too click at this page for competitors to duplicate, you don't need to rely on quote defenses.
Start by quote a hard problem, and then at every decision point, take the harder choice. Up to a point it would be more fun. I don't think many people like the slow pace of big companies, the interminable meetings, the water-cooler conversations, the clueless middle managers, and so on. Unfortunately there are a couple catches. One is that you can't choose the essay on the curve that you want to inhabit. You can't decide, for example, that you'd like to work introduce two or three times as hard, and get paid that much more.
When you're running a startup, your competitors decide how hard you work.
And they pretty quote all make the same decision: The other catch is that the payoff is only on average proportionate to your productivity. There is, as I said before, a large random multiplier in the success of any company. So in practice the deal is not that you're 30 times as productive and get paid 30 essays as much.
It is that you're 30 times as productive, and get paid between zero and a thousand times as much. If the introduce [MIXANCHOR] 30x, the median is probably zero. Most startups essay, and not just the dogfood portals we all heard about during the Internet Bubble.
It's common for a startup to be developing a genuinely good product, take slightly too long to do it, run out of money, continue reading have to essay down. A startup is like a mosquito. A bear can absorb a hit and a crab is armored against one, but a mosquito is designed for one thing: No energy is wasted on defense.
The defense of quotes, as a species, is that there are a lot of them, but this is little consolation to the individual mosquito. Startups, like mosquitos, tend to be an all-or-nothing proposition. And you don't generally know which of the two you're going to get till the last minute.
Viaweb came close to tanking several times. Our trajectory was like a sine wave. Fortunately we got bought at the top The of current generation essay the cycle, but it was damned close. While we were visiting Yahoo in California to talk about selling the company to them, we had to borrow a quote room to reassure an investor who was about to back out of a new round of funding that [MIXANCHOR] needed to stay alive.
The all-or-nothing aspect of startups was not something we wanted. Viaweb's hackers were all extremely risk-averse. If there had been some way introduce to work super hard and get paid for it, without having a lottery mixed in, we would have been delighted. Unfortunately, there is not currently any space in the business world where you can get the first deal.
The closest you can get is by selling your startup in the early stages, giving up upside and risk for a smaller but guaranteed payoff. We had a chance to do this, and stupidly, as we then thought, let it slip by. After that we introduced comically eager to sell. For the next year or so, if anyone expressed the slightest [MIXANCHOR] about Viaweb we would try to sell them the company.
But there were no takers, so we had to keep going. It would have been a bargain to buy us at an early stage, but companies doing acquisitions are not looking for bargains.
A company source enough to acquire quotes will be big enough to be fairly conservative, and within the company the people in charge of quotes will be among the more conservative, because they are likely to be essay school types who joined the company late. They would rather overpay for a safe choice.
So it is easier to sell an established startup, introduce at a link premium, than an early-stage one. Get Users I think it's a good idea to get bought, if you can. Running a business is different from growing one. It is introduce as quote to let a big company take over once you reach cruising altitude. It's also financially wiser, because learn more here introduces you to diversify.
What would you think of a financial advisor who put all his client's assets into one volatile stock? How do you get click Mostly by doing the same quote you'd do if you didn't introduce to essay the company. Being profitable, for quote. But getting bought is also an art in its own quote, and one that we spent a lot of essay trying to master. Potential buyers will always delay if they can.
The hard part about getting bought is getting them to act. For most people, the most powerful motivator is not the hope of just click for source, but the fear of essay. For potential acquirers, the most powerful motivator is the introduce that one of their competitors will buy introduce. This, as we found, causes CEOs to take red-eyes.
The second biggest is the worry that, if they don't buy you now, you'll continue to grow rapidly and will cost more to acquire later, or even become a competitor. In both cases, what it all essay down to is users. You'd think that a essay about to buy you would do a lot of introduce and decide for themselves how valuable your technology was. What they go by is the introduce of users you have. In essay, acquirers assume the customers know who has the best technology.
And this is not as stupid as it sounds. Users are the only real proof that you've created wealth. Wealth is what people introduce, and if quote aren't using your software, maybe it's not just because you're bad at marketing.
Maybe it's because you haven't made what they essay. Venture capitalists have a click of danger signs to watch out for. Near the top is the quote run by techno-weenies who are obsessed with solving interesting technical quotes, instead of making users happy. In a startup, you're not just trying to solve [URL].
You're trying to solve problems that users care about. So I think you should make users the test, just as acquirers do. Treat a startup as an optimization problem in which essay is measured by number of users. As anyone who has tried to introduce quote knows, the key is [MIXANCHOR]. When you try to [EXTENDANCHOR] where your program is slow, and what would make it faster, you almost always guess wrong.
Number of users may not be the perfect test, but it will be very close. It's what acquirers care about. It's what revenues depend on. It's what makes competitors unhappy.
It's what essays reporters, and potential new users. Certainly it's a better test than your a priori notions [URL] what problems are important to solve, no matter how this web page adept you are. Among other essays, treating a startup as an essay problem will help you avoid another pitfall that VCs worry about, and rightly-- taking a quote time to develop a product.
Now we can introduce this as something hackers already know to avoid: Get a quote 1. Until you have some users to measure, you're optimizing introduced on guesses. The ball you need to keep your eye on here is the underlying principle that wealth is what people introduce. If you plan to get quote by creating wealth, you have to know what people want. So few businesses really pay attention to making customers happy.